Sustainablog

This blog will cover some news items related to Sustainability: Corporate Social Responsibility, Stewardship, Environmental management, etc.

2.11.07

Environment (A Special Report) --- What's New: The latest on alternative-energy deals from Dow Jones clean technology investor


Thanks to Lloyd

Nice quotes from Peter in a few places today,

http://www.pcw.co.uk/business-green/analysis/2202253/solar-power-smart-grids-heart

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Environment (A Special Report) --- What's New: The latest on alternative-energy deals from Dow Jones clean technology investor
By Yuliya Chernova, Bob Sechler and Jonathan Shieber
974 words
29 October 2007
The Wall Street Journal
R3
English
(Copyright (c) 2007, Dow Jones & Company, Inc.)

Clean Money

Large companies increasingly are investing in clean technology, whether to look for ways to avoid costly energy inputs, help fund new technologies or assist their consumers in being more energy-efficient.

Technology and manufacturing company Honeywell International Inc. has been taking steps on several fronts. In June, the firm's UOP unit, which specializes in refining petrochemicals, announced a partnership with Italian oil company Eni SpA to construct a plant in Italy to produce an equilavent to diesel fuel derived from vegetable oil beginning in 2009. The plant will use a refining process jointly developed by the two companies, and Eni will build it. UOP is licensing its technology to other companies and expects one of them to build a similar plant in the U.S.

Jennifer Holmgren, director of UOP's renewable energy and chemicals business, says while the plant will use vegetable oil as its raw material, the process works with any type of grease or animal fat, provided it's cleaned beforehand.

On the energy-efficiency front, Honeywell has formed partnerships with several utilities to roll out a thermostat and related programs to allow customers to save on energy use.

The thermostat, Honeywell UtilityPRO, will enable utilities to send messages to customers, telling them when electricity prices are high or low, for example, based on average rates. Customers who sign up for the utilities' programs -- such as agreeing to have air conditioning shut off for short periods during peak-load times -- will receive the thermostat free or for a low charge.

Honeywell also is building small renewable power plants, from under one megawatt up to 10 megawatts, for public institutions. Customers agree to buy a minimum amount of power generated by the equipment Honeywell installs, maintains and owns. The company has already signed two deals -- one for a school and another for a town, where solar panels will go on top of a library, firehouse, city hall and elsewhere -- and has several more in the works, according to Kent Anson, vice president of global energy for Honeywell Building Solutions.

Longer, Stronger Solar Cells

Making a foray into the booming solar market, Dow Corning Corp. is working with SunPower Corp. on a new material for use on solar cells that the companies say could improve cell efficiency and longevity.

The partnership is part of Dow Corning's plan to pursue opportunities in the photovoltaic industry, and the new material is based on years of research, according to Marie Eckstein, vice president and general manager of Dow Corning's Advanced Technologies and Ventures unit. Photovoltaic cells convert sunlight into electricity.

"The material doesn't degrade," says Ms. Eckstein, which means that it could improve the longevity of solar cells. "The added benefit is that you get improved light transmission and that transmission remains over the lifetime of the cell."

IBM Patents

International Business Machines Corp. already has a business helping utilities become more efficient, but it's looking at ways to apply its technology in the solar power and water markets. IBM says it has 66 patents that mention photovoltaic technologies, and approximately 19 of them are most relevant to the photovoltaic manufacturing sector.

"I don't think any decisions have been made as to whether you will see these things with an IBM logo on them," says Peter Williams, chief technology officer for IBM's Big Green Innovations business unit.

Charge It for a Cause

Some energy companies are placing sizable bets on the long-term future of alternative energy sources. Power company AES Corp. has so far committed to invest $2 billion in alternative-energy projects and has a broad goal of investing $10 billion over the next decade.

Initiatives include a partnership with General Electric Co.'s GE Energy Financial Services to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions. Part of that is a new credit card that allows 1% of purchases to go toward funding projects that capture harmful gases. AES is building biodigesters to collect and destroy methane generated from large animal farms, palm-oil mills and landfills in Asia (primarily in Malaysia, China and Indonesia) as well as in South America. ---

Ms. Chernova and Mr. Shieber are reporters in Jersey City, N.J., for Clean Technology Investor, a newsletter published by Dow Jones & Co. Mr. Sechler is a reporter in Austin, Texas, for Dow Jones Newswires. They can be reached at yuliya.chernova@dowjones.com, jonathan.shieber@dowjones.com and bob.sechler@dowjones.com.

---

                               What Else Is New

 Here's a look at other recent deals reported by Clean Technology Investor:

 -- Great Point Energy Inc. raised $100 million to commercialize its
technology, which converts coal into natural gas.  Dow Chemical Co. and Citi
Sustainable Development Investments, a part of Citi Alternative Investments,
the alternative-investment arm of  Citigroup, led the Series C financing
round, joined by AES,  Suncor Energy Inc. and the firm' previous venture
investors.

 -- Amyris Biotechnologies raised $70 million to produce bio-based fuels
using genetic technology it used to make low-cost malaria drugs. Amyris says
it has developed a process that converts sugar cane, corn, cellulose or other
feedstocks into transportation fuels compatible with current engines and
today's fuel distribution infrastructure.

 -- More start-ups are racing to develop alternatives to traditional
gasoline-powered vehicles. Fisker Automotive, started recently by car
designer Henrik Fisker and  Quantum Fuel Systems Technologies Worldwide Inc.,
intends to have its first car, a four-door plug-in hybrid vehicle, on the
market in the U.S. by 2009. Venture Vehicles Inc. raised $6 million to bring
a three-wheeled electric hybrid and fully electric vehicles to the U.S.
market.
   


Sustainability Webcast: A panel of experts will discuss the benefits and savings that food and beverage companies can achieve with sustainable best practices in Food Logistics' live webcast, "Saving Green By Being Green."


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Business practices that are good for the environment are also good for the bottom line.

Sustainability-
the ability to meet present needs without compromising those of future generations-is not only good for the environment, it's also good for the bottom line. The business processes and investments which are ecologically viable also tend to be economically beneficial. A panel of experts will discuss the benefits and savings that food and beverage companies can achieve with sustainable best practices in Food Logistics' live webcast, "Saving Green By Being Green."

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Kathy Doherty
Editor-in-Chief
Food Logistics Magazine



Speakers
Candice Hernon
Manager of Environmental Sustainability
CHEP USA

Candice will discuss the environmental benefits of pallet pooling vs. other common industry shipping alternatives. In addition to savings in solid waste generation, total energy consumption, and greenhouse gas emissions, the CHEP pooling system can drive efficiency, cost savings and reduced product damage in the supply chain.


Dan Sanker
President and CEO
CaseStack, Inc.

Dan will discuss how retailers and suppliers can create consolidation programs so that numerous individual orders can ship as one full truckload, creating 100 percent truckload consolidation, without changing their basic operations.



Kris Colby
Senior Manager
Ariba

Kris Colby will discuss a comprehensive risk management approach that integrates sourcing, assessment and supplier scorecarding efforts.


FREE LIVE WEBCAST
November 7, 2007 . 1:00PM EST



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IBM will issue energy savings certificates: IBM will announce Friday a program that will make it possible for its customers to document server energy savings -- and even trade them for cash, if they want, on emerging carbon markets.


Thanks for Sharon for forwarding on

IBM to let customers sell server energy savings on carbon markets
Another financial incentive for reducing power in data centers
Patrick Thibodeau

November 01, 2007 (Computerworld) -- IBM will announce Friday a program that will make it possible for its customers to document server energy savings -- and even trade them for cash, if they want, on emerging carbon markets.

IBM says it's the first in this industry to offer such a program, and though it's initially making it available only for its mainframes, the company plans to extend it to all its server lines and storage systems as well.

How it works: IBM says that if you take distributed systems -- for instance, x86 servers -- and consolidate them on a mainframe, the move will result in an energy savings. Those savings can be calculated based on reference data, a task that will fall to Neuwing Energy Ventures, an independent firm verifying and trading in energy efficiency certificates.

More specifically, IBM say its ongoing consolidation of 3,900 distributed systems onto 33 mainframes will eventually save the company 119,000 megawatt hours annually. The megawatt hours of savings that Neuwing will calculate will include the total savings to power and cool the data center. One energy efficiency certificate is issued for each megawatt hour saved per year.

Those certificates, in IBM's example, would have an estimated value of between $300,000 and $1 million based on market conditions, said Rich Lechner, IBM's vice president of IT optimization. Those certificates can be issued for each year of the life of the project.

"The value of these certificates is minute to the real energy savings and the real operational savings that you re going to realize," said Lechner.

Savings are the real draw

Indeed, energy efficiency certificates may prove mere frosting on the layers of punishments and incentives already pushing data-center managers to save energy. Unrelenting server growth, rising power bills, insufficient cooling and even power availability have turned power and cooling issues into the number-one data center headache. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, which was asked by Congress last year to study power consumption by data centers, reported in August that it expects computer and data center power consumption to double over the next five years.

IBM isn't alone in providing a financial incentive for energy efficiency. Pacific Gas & Electric, for instance, is working with major utilities to expand a program that pays a company between $150 and $300 per server removed from service. The utility has been encouraging its customers to adopt virtualization to increase server utilization.

Under IBM's program, a company could keep its energy certificates and use them simply as proof of corporate responsibility. But other companies might sell these certificates on one of the emerging carbon markets.

If you are operating a data center in the center of London, your data center "is a huge percentage of your total power consumption and thereby your CO2 emissions," said Lechner. "If you don't achieve the savings yourself, you acquire it from a third party," he said, which is this case would be mean buying energy savings certificates.

Existing mainframe users can also claim credits based on increased computing requirements. To the degree that you demonstrate that you are growing on an efficient platform, and avoiding costs such as lightly utilized x86 servers, you can project savings, said Lechner.

Google's love for solar may extend to other renewables


Thanks to Colin for this one


Google's love for solar may extend to other renewables
Posted by Martin LaMonica


BOSTON--When it comes to bragging rights and solar power, Google's on top: it has the largest corporate installation of solar-powered electricity yet.

But that apparently is just the beginning. The search giant is also considering other forms of renewable energy, according to Robyn Beavers, the director of environmental programs at Google. Google intends to generate 50 megawatts of electricity from renewable forms for its operations by 2012.

Google founders Larry Page and Sergey Brin charge a plug-in beneath its solar-powered car port.

(Credit: Google)

Beavers spoke at the Conference on Clean Energy here on Monday where she outlined a number of initiatives that Google participates in aimed at reducing greenhouse gas emissions.

Those include the 1.6 megawatt solar installation at its corporate headquarters in Mountain View, Calif. In addition to panels on building roofs, Google has constructed a car port with solar panels as a roof, under which people can charge up plug-in hybrids.

Asked whether Google was considering wind power, Beavers said she couldn't say. But she didn't leave much doubt that all forms of renewable energy are actively under consideration.

"Wind, solar, geothermal, fuel cells--you name it, we're looking into it," she said.

Corporate buyers are prized customers for the thousands of clean-tech start-ups that have cropped up over the past few years. Wal-Mart's decision to invest in solar has been a closely watched move and indicator of solar power demand.

Renewable energy projects like solar, wind or biomass can be financially interesting to businesses because they typically allow companies to get a contract with fixed energy prices, which acts as a hedge against rising rates.

In the case of Google, which consumes a lot of electricity to power its operations and data centers, its investment in solar electricity will pay for itself in seven and a half years. Its consumption from the grid has been reduced by 30 percent and its bills cut down a lot more than 30 percent, Beavers said.

30.10.07

Successful IBM media debut in the "Solar energy" field


Thanks to all those who sent this in... It appears you'd have to live under a rock to not have heard about it ;-) Hopefully, the first of many green energy developments to come in the coming weeks and months

Remember to vote at:

http://youtube.com/watch?v=3tz4DssQ9PY


From high tech trash to solar power

IBM recycles semiconductor wafers for use in solar panels

The same semiconductor wafers IBM uses to make chips for cell phones are finding a new life in solar cells.
A team from the IBM Burlington site has developed a process to use scrap silicon wafers in energy-producing solar panels, saving money, reducing waste, protecting the environment and helping an expanding solar energy industry.

This solar effort captured the limelight recently when IBM received the "2007 Most Valuable Pollution Prevention Award" from The National Pollution Prevention Roundtable, the largest membership organization devoted to pollution prevention in the United States. From low-power chips to high-power solar cells — it's a winning environmental process that underscores IBM's leadership in developing "green" innovations for its operations, its clients and for the world.

IBM uses thin silicon wafers — about 1/30th of an inch thick and eight or 12 inches in diameter — as the base for manufacturing semiconductor chips at its Burlington and East Fishkill sites. The circuitry for hundreds of individual chips, ranging from microprocessors for servers to special purpose components for cell phones and consumer electronics, are imprinted on the wafers.

Photo of steps in remaking microprocessor into a s
The photo illustrates the patented process of converting IBM semiconductor wafers to solar panels. From left, defective wafers are scrubbed of their proprietary chip patterns, resulting in bare silicon wafers. They are then reused by IBM as monitor wafers to test manufacturing processes before being sold to solar panel manufacturers.

The manufacturing process requires that a number of blank wafers be used as "monitors" to test and control the operations. These mirror-like monitor wafers can be used only for a certain number of times before they must be discarded. Previously, the used wafers were crushed and sent to a landfill. Now, IBM is making them available for sale to the solar industry, which depends on the same silicon material to produce photovoltaic cells for solar panels. The timing couldn't be better, as demand for solar panels is soaring, while the supplies of raw silicon are tightening.

The Burlington team extended the savings further to include rejected product wafers by developing an environmentally friendly process using water and an abrasive pad to remove chip patterns from the wafers. The stripped wafers can then be used as monitor wafers and they too are recycled for use in solar cells.

The process reflects IBM's environmental goals of reduce, reuse and recycle by eliminating scrap wafers sent to a landfill and lessening IBM's need to purchase new silicon wafers, while at the same time supporting alternative energy use by providing an important raw material for solar panels.

James Procopio and Michelle Bolz The process also saves money. The projected annual savings for Burlington manufacturing this year is $1.36 million, and the one-time savings for reclaiming scrapped product is estimated to be $1.6 million.

IBM intends to provide details of the new process to the broader, worldwide semiconductor manufacturing industry to extend the environmental benefit.

At right, James Procopio, an IBM chip manufacturing product manager, holds a semiconductor wafer before it goes through IBM's environmentally-friendly process to remove the chip patterns and turn the silicon into a usable solar panel, held by Michelle Bolz, an IBM manufacturing engineer.  They are surrounded by boxes of scrap silicon wafers ready to be recycled.


IBM gives boost to solar energy

By
DAVID HO
The Atlanta Journal-Constitution
Published on: 10/30/07

New York — IBM Corp. is announcing Tuesday that it has developed a way to easily refurbish scrap material left over from the creation of microchips so it can be used in solar energy panels, a process that could save money and help feed the solar industry's appetite for silicon.

Big Blue said it plans to share the technique with the semiconductor industry. Analysts say it could be widely adopted.

The semiconductor industry imprints patterns on silicon wafers to build the chips used in computers, video games, cellphones and other electronics. A small fraction of these thin silicon discs are scrapped, adding up to more than 3 million wafers discarded worldwide each year, according to industry and IBM estimates.

The scrap wafers, etched with patterns that companies consider intellectual property, are often crushed and sent to landfills.

IBM's new process uses existing wafer-polishing equipment to erase the patterns, said Thom Jagielski, environmental manager at the IBM chip plant in Burlington, Vt., that developed the technique. He said this allows wafers to be reused for equipment testing and later be sold to solar panel manufacturers.

The 3 million scrapped wafers each year could be used to create solar panels to power 6,000 houses, IBM said.

"It's a simple process, but it really returns benefits on so many different levels," Jagielski said. "Not only do we reduce our overall use of silicon, but then to be able to create a raw material for the solar panel industry is kind of a good story all the way around."

Armonk, N.Y.-based IBM has used the abrasion process for more than a year at the Vermont plant and is rolling it out at its chip factory in Fishkill, N.Y.

"It's a low-entry fee to do this," Jagielski said.

IBM's prominence in chip production means the process could affect many manufacturers, said Jim McGregor, an analyst with tech research firm In-Stat.

"Whatever IBM develops get filtered down to their partners," he said. "That's a big chunk of the industry."

That, in turn, could lead to more partnerships between the semiconductor and solar energy industries and the sharing of technology and resources, McGregor said.

"It's a shot in the arm for the solar industry, which has been hurting," said Richard Doherty, research director of the Envisioneering Group market research and consulting firm. "There hasn't been enough wafer material."

Most chip makers have scrapped leftover wafers when faced with the trouble and expense of reclaiming them internally or the risk of losing trade secrets by sending them out for recycling, McGregor said.

"There's always been concern that you never let raw wafers out unless they are highly controlled," McGregor said. He said the concern is over someone "backward engineering your product, learning what you did and how you did it."

Reusing scrap wafers as the "monitor" wafers used for equipment calibration and testing saves 90 percent of the energy that would be expended making a new one, Jagielski said.

Each abrasion session makes the wafer thinner, but the end product can still be used for solar panels, he said.





IBM Pioneers Process to Turn Waste Into Solar Energy
Helps Reduce and Repurpose Estimated Three Million Discarded Silicon Wafers Yearly; Provides New Supply to Constrained Solar Energy Manufacturers


Last Update: 8:01 AM ET Oct 30, 2007
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BURLINGTON, VT, Oct 30, 2007 (MARKET WIRE via COMTEX) -- IBM (IBM:
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IBM 114.58, -0.22, -0.2%) today announced an innovative new semiconductor wafer reclamation process pioneered at its Burlington, Vermont manufacturing facility. The new process uses a specialized pattern removal technique to repurpose scrap semiconductor wafers -- thin discs of silicon material used to imprint patterns that make finished semiconductor chips for computers, mobile phones, video games, and other consumer electronics -- to a form used to manufacture silicon-based solar panels. The new process was recently awarded the "2007 Most Valuable Pollution Prevention Award" from The National Pollution Prevention Roundtable (NPPR).
Through this new reclamation process, IBM is now able to more efficiently remove the intellectual property from the wafer surface, making these wafers available either for reuse in internal manufacturing calibration as "monitor wafers" or for sale to the solar cell industry, which must meet a growing demand for the same silicon material to produce photovoltaic cells for solar panels. IBM intends to provide details of the new process to the broader semiconductor manufacturing industry. It is currently in use the Burlington, VT, facility and in the process of being implemented at IBM's East Fishkill, NY, semiconductor fabrication plant.
"One of the challenges facing the solar industry is a severe shortage of silicon, which threatens to stall its rapid growth," said Charles Bai, chief financial officer of ReneSola, one of China's fastest growing solar energy companies. "This is why we have turned to reclaimed silicon materials sourced primarily from the semiconductor industry to supply the raw material our company needs to manufacture solar panels."
IBM and others in the industry use silicon wafers both as the starting material for manufacturing microelectronic products -- from cell phones to computers to consumer electronics -- and to monitor and control the myriad of steps in the manufacturing process. According to the Semiconductor Industry Association, worldwide 250,000 wafers are started per day across the industry. IBM estimates that up to 3.3% of these started wafers are scrapped. In the course of the year, this amounts to approximately three million discarded wafers.* Because the wafers contain intellectual property, most cannot be sent to outside vendors to reclaim and are crushed and sent to landfills, or melted down and resold.
"IBM's commitment to environmental conservation spans its business, from the repurposing of materials used in semiconductor manufacturing to enabling customers to manage, measure, and run the most power efficient datacenters on the planet," said Mike Cadigan, general manager, IBM Semiconductor Solutions. "The engineering ingenuity that IBM has demonstrated in pioneering the wafer-to-solar panel program has generated countless other conservation initiatives in our manufacturing operations."
The new wafer reclamation process produces monitor wafers from scrap product wafers -- generating an overall energy savings of up to 90% because repurposing scrap means that IBM no longer has to procure the usual volume of net new wafers to meet manufacturing needs. When monitors wafers reach end of life they are sold to the solar industry. Depending on how a specific solar cell manufacturer chooses to process a batch of reclaimed wafers -- they could save between 30 - 90% of the energy that they would have needed if they'd used a new silicon material source. These estimated energy savings translate into an overall reduction of the carbon footprint -- the measure of the total amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) and other greenhouse gases emitted over the full life cycle of a product or service -- for both the Semiconductor and Solar industries.
The program resulted in reduced spending on monitor wafers and increased efficiency in IBM's wafer reclaim program. For the IBM Burlington site, the annual savings in 2006 were more than half-a-million dollars. The projected ongoing annual savings for 2007 is nearly $1.5 million and the one-time savings for reclaiming stockpiled wafers is estimated to be more than $1.5 million. Located ten miles from Burlington in Essex Junction, Vermont, the campus employs some 5,600 people on 750 acres in more than 20 major buildings -- with a primary focus on the development, manufacture and testing of semiconductors.
The NPPR also recognized Burlington's water conservation and energy management programs with an honorable mention. As the largest membership organization in the United States devoted solely to Pollution Prevention (P2), the NPPR acts as a window on the P2 community.
IBM innovations in microelectronics and the company's groundbreaking system-on-a-chip designs have transformed the world of semiconductors. IBM breakthroughs include High-k, which enhances the transistor's function while allowing it to be shrunk beyond today's limits, dual-core and multi-core microprocessors, copper on-chip wiring, silicon-on-insulator and silicon germanium transistors, strained silicon, and eFUSE, a technology that enables computer chips to automatically respond to changing conditions. The White House has awarded IBM the National Medal of Technology, the nation's highest technical honor, for 40 years of innovation in semiconductors.
For further information about IBM Microelectronics, visit http://www.ibm.com/chips/
IBM VIRTUAL PRESS KIT: http://www.ibm.com/press/us/en/presskit/22505.wss
Journalists: Broadcast-quality video, including a video news release and b-roll, is available to registered journalists at http://www.thenewsmarket.com/ibm
Bloggers: Web-quality streaming video, including a video news release and b-roll, is available to registered bloggers at www.thenewsmarket.com/videocafe
* The SIA calculates that worldwide 250,000 wafers are started per day. With a 3.3% scrap rate (based on IBM semiconductor manufacturing data) applied to all started wafers worldwide annually, IBM estimates that at least 3 million are scrapped per year. Actual scrap rates might vary based on operational efficiency and manufacturing expertise.
PRESS CONTACT:
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IBM scrubs waste silicon clean
Last Updated: Tuesday, October 30, 2007 | 8:50 AM ET
The Associated Press

IBM Corp. said on Monday it has developed a greener method for recycling precious silicon wasted during computer chip manufacturing.

For microprocessors and other computer chips to be made, discs of silicon known as wafers get circuitry imprinted on them and then are cut into hundreds of tiny pieces that become the chips. Because chips have to be essentially flawless, imperfect portions or even the entire wafers sometimes get discarded.

It has been possible to salvage that silicon. Some gets resold to the solar-panel industry, while other pieces get reused as "monitors," the wafers that are fed into semiconductor assembly lines for test purposes.

Often, however, recyclers use acidic chemicals to erase the circuitry from wafers. IBM had been sandblasting its wafers to be sure no trade secrets on the wafers got out.

Now IBM engineers have developed a process for removing the circuitry with an abrasive pad and water, which saves money and leaves the silicon in better shape for reuse.

IBM, which makes chips for server computers, video game consoles and other electronics, has been using the process at its chip facility in Essex Junction, Vt., and plans to do so at its plant in East Fishkill, N.Y.

Eric White, one of the engineers behind the process, said it would let IBM get five or six monitor wafers out of one that otherwise would be scrapped. By extending the life of the silicon, IBM believes it will save about $1.5 million US a year and leave more of the material available for the solar industry, where supplies have been tight.

Analyst Richard Doherty of the Envisioneering Group said he was unaware of a similar development elsewhere. And while the cost benefits appear small, he said they could matter given the thin margins in the semiconductor industry.

"In today's world, anything that gives you a one, two, thee, four, five per cent improvement is a real breakthrough," he said.


IBM aims to salvage silicon for solar industry

By Michael Kanellos
http://www.news.com/IBM-aims-to-salvage-silicon-for-solar-industry/2100-1008_3-6215885.html

Story last modified Mon Oct 29 21:08:33 PDT 2007


It's like a Waterpik for silicon wafers.

IBM has come up with a way to more efficiently recycle scrap silicon wafers owned by semiconductor manufacturers for the solar industry. The technique basically involves polishing a scrap wafer with water, an abrasive pad, and a piece of machinery ordinarily used to smooth out the pits and valleys in production chips. Rather than smooth out the surface of the wafer, the primary goal of the water polishing process is to erase any intellectual property or chip designs on the wafer.

"We use it literally to scrap off the integrated circuits," said Tom Jagielski, an engineering manager at IBM working on the project.

Water makes the process more eco-friendly--usually, wafers get dipped in abrasive chemicals or blasted with tiny glass beads to remove circuitry.

IBM estimates that around 3 million wafers get scrapped a year. If you could turn those all into solar panels, the panels would be capable of generating 13.5 megawatts of power.

Salvaging silicon with water

That would represent a small percentage of the world's solar output. Sharp, the largest solar panel maker in the world, can manufacture more than 600 megawatts of solar cells a year. But a global silicon shortage--which started after large subsidies in Germany goosed solar demand in early 2004--makes any source of processed silicon welcome.

Texas Instruments, Intel, and other companies already sell their scrap wafers. TI used to unload them, garage-sale style, outside the factory. Starting in 2004, it began to sell them in a more uniform program. Now, TI sells about 1 million scrap wafers a year to solar manufacturers, which results in about $8 million in revenue.

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Scrap wafers, more often than not, are blanks--for instance, wafers that were used to calibrate or test manufacture processes. The wafers get repolished after each test and, after a certain point, are too thin to use as test blanks anymore. Even though thin, the wafers remain thick enough for the solar industry.

Jagielski said that IBM plans to share the technique with other chipmakers, but how and when the process will be shared has yet to be determined. IBM currently recycles wafers this way in its Burlington, Va., facility and will bring it to its East Fishkill, N.Y., plant.

The solar shortage is expected to continue at least through next year. Although supply has increased, global demand for solar panels is expanding. Other solutions for ameliorating the problem lie in relying on dirty or less-pure silicon for solar panels. CaliSolar has come up with a way to isolate impurities in dirty silicon so that panels made from the material will still generate electricity. Ordinarily, impurities cause silicon panels to fail.

29.10.07

IBM Partners With Grameen Foundation to Expand Its Open Source Microfinance Banking Platform and Help Eradicate Poverty





IBM Partners With Grameen Foundation to Expand Its Open Source Microfinance Banking Platform and Help Eradicate Poverty

   
 
ARMONK, NY and WASHINGTON, DC - 15 Oct 2007: IBM (NYSE: IBM) and Grameen Foundation today announced a collaborative project to help microfinance institutions (MFIs) better serve poor communities around the world by expanding Mifos, Grameen Foundation's ground-breaking open source microfinance software platform. The project will build additional functionality and robustness into the Mifos application and give MFIs around the world access to new, world-class software that streamlines the lending process and significantly reduces operational and technology costs. Five MFIs are currently deploying Mifos in India, Kenya, Tunisia and Honduras.
MFIs help poor people pull themselves out of poverty by providing small loans (usually less than US$200) to establish or expand very small, self-supporting businesses. Many also provide other financial services such as savings accounts, micro-insurance, and social services such as education and healthcare.
Today, MFIs are inhibited from extending their reach because they lack a flexible, cost-effective technology infrastructure that enables them to expand their operations to provide loans to more people and to develop new products and services. Many MFIs are still using pen and paper or simple spreadsheets to process loans. A 2004 study by the Consultative Group to Assist the Poor (CGAP) showed that just half of all MFIs around the world have automated information systems, and those that do invest in technology spend duplicative resources on custom-built systems that are extremely costly and difficult to maintain.
The work that IBM and Grameen Foundation are collaborating on will help address these issues and drive the industry to work collaboratively to build and maintain a strong and stable software platform that MFIs can use to automate portfolio processing and build next generation microfinance applications. The benefits of the new Mifos platform will include (1) access to world-class software for all microfinance institutions; (2) global standards in management and reporting; and (3) sharing and scaling of technology innovation. All of these benefits will contribute to the microfinance industry's capacity to increase its outreach to those in need.
"We are pleased to collaborate with IBM in further developing Mifos as a robust, best-in-class software platform that unlocks the potential of microfinance institutions to enhance their operations and provide more products and services to the world's poorest people," said George Conard, Director of the Mifos Initiative at Grameen Foundation. The Mifos initiative is being spearheaded by the Grameen Technology Center, the Seattle-based division of Grameen Foundation that focuses on using technology solutions in the fight against global poverty.
"Microfinance was one of the most active topics at the 2006 IBM Innovation Jam due to the pressing need to help poor people around the world," said Bridget Van Kralingen, General Manager, IBM Global Business Services Northeast Europe. "IBM's deep expertise in both financial systems and open source software will accelerate the development of Mifos, and will enable us to make a strong contribution to an innovation that matters for the world."
IBM's 2006 Innovation Jam was a global brainstorming session involving over 150,000 clients, partners, and employees across 104 countries. Based on the viewpoints of the participants during the Jam, IBM committed to advancing ten initiatives with the potential for grand-scale innovation breakthroughs. The purpose of these investments is not only to incubate new business areas for IBM but also to make a positive impact on critical global issues.
The Microcredit Summit Campaign, a global umbrella organization for MFIs, estimates that as of 2006, more than 3,100 MFIs were providing microfinance services to more than 113 million poor people around the world. In addition, the MFIs listed on the Microfinance Information eXchange (MIX) reported more than $23 billion in gross loan portfolio between 2004 and 2006.
About Grameen Foundation
Grameen Foundation is a global non-profit organization that combines microfinance, technology, and innovation to empower the world's poorest people to escape poverty. Based in Washington, D.C., it was founded by Alex Counts, who began his work in microfinance with 2006 Nobel Peace Laureate Dr. Muhammad Yunus, the founder of Grameen Bank. Dr. Yunus is a founding and current member of Grameen Foundation's board of directors. Grameen Foundation has established a global network of partners in 25 countries that has impacted an estimated 18 million lives in Asia, Africa, the Americas, and the Middle East. Through its Strategic Services unit, GF is engaging the global microfinance industry by championing innovations related to capital, poverty measurement and impact, human resources, and technology including the Capital Markets Advisory Center (CMAC), Social Performance Management, Human Resources Management Center, and Grameen Technology Center. For more information on Grameen Foundation and Mifos, please visit
www.grameenfoundation.org and www.mifos.org.
For more information on IBM banking solutions, visit www.ibm.com/banking




Intel's Business Case for Carbon Reduction: Our standing goal today is to reduce our greenhouse gas emissions per production unit by 30 percent from a 2004 level by the time we get to 2010.



Intel's Business Case for Carbon Reduction
Source:
By Sarah Fister Gale




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Greener World Media Contributing Writer Sarah Fister Gale met Dave Stangis of
Intel last month while covering the Carbon Footprint Consumer Products Conference in Chicago. There, Mr. Stangis, who is Intel's director of corporate responsibility, spoke about the need to incorporate carbon reduction efforts into a company's business plan.

In this Q & A, Mr. Stangis will discuss the evolution of the company's carbon footprint and the challenges of making the business case for carbon reduction and efficiency improvements.

Sarah Fister Gale:
Hi Dave. Tell me a little bit about Intel's efforts to reduce carbon emissions.

Dave Stangis:
Our carbon footprint, for the most part, was made up of two major parts in our operations. One is something called PFCs or perfluorocarbons.

These are gases that we use in our processes. So they made up about half of our footprint. The other half was in the energy that we had to purchase. For a while now our total carbon footprint has been about 4 million tons of CO2, about half PFCs and half energy.

These PFCs are gases that have a high global warming potential, so a pound of PFC in the atmosphere has a lot more impact on climate than a pound of CO2.

So focusing on those would have a multiplier effect. The industry back in 1998 set up a goal to reduce these PFC emissions over the next decade or so and we've been working on that. That's what the early focus was on -- really driving down those PFC emissions. We made some great strides. We basically designed out those PFCs and designed in more environmentally-friendly materials.

SFG:
Can you give me some examples?

DS:
Not with chemical names but basically our process changed about every 18 months to two years. And we're designing and we're building those processes in with environmental engineers and setting goals probably two or three years before that.

So we have a group of environmental engineers sit with our process designers. They meet every quarter designing the next, and the next, process. They set goals for water use, carbon emissions, energy use, and to drive that environmental footprint down.

Then when it gets built into the system it then gets copied everywhere we go so we might have our first technology that is proliferated in Oregon, and then as we build those factories around the world, that built-in, better environmental design gets copied everywhere. And that's kind of how we've made these strides over the years.

SFG:
Do you benchmark those efforts? Do you have statistics around the impact that they've had?

DS:
Yes. There's two parts to your question. Number one is a lot of it is done with the industry. So, one of the things that we've tried to do in this -- because we're always at the front and because we have to invest so much capital and R&D dollars to be the leader in the semi-conductor industry -- we're always working with our competitors in the environmental health and safety space and even the suppliers, the people that supply the tools that manufacture our chips to try to make these improvements.

So it really is an industry-wide effort to try to drive these things down. There's actually a 10-year technology roadmap that the industry publishes publicly. It describes what we've done in that roadmap to try to drive these down. And we report -- to your question on indicators -- we've been reporting these numbers publicly both absolute and normalized now since that time in the late 1990s. We've been doing environmental reports since 1994, and corporate responsibility reports for the last six years.

SFG:
When you say you work with industry together to achieve some of these efforts, this is a very competitive and secretive industry. How do you manage to get beyond the competition for the good of the whole?

DS:
There's different parts to it. So, (on) the environmental stuff -- the environmental criteria and performance -- we've actually tried not to compete. The industry has been good about this, it's not just Intel. I have to give credit where it's due.

The industry's really tried to help each other improve in terms of environmental performance. The technology and how you get to the next level, or the next node on the technology cycle, is what's secretive. Equipment suppliers that supply equipment just say Intel or AMD or TI or IBM; they make equipment that serves the industry. They can't make equipment that only serves Intel or only serves IBM. It's too cost prohibitive to do that.

So working with them on ways to improve the environmental impact is where we share information.

We actually have this consortium is called SemiTech. Each of the companies actually send their employees for a couple years to SemiTech to go work on some of these environmental issues for the industry. And then they come back and we trade; those people come back to Intel and we assign new people to SemiTech for several years.

We're actually working -- this is kind of related, but a little sidetracked -- we're actually working on a LEED standard, which is the green building standard, for fabrication facilities. We've assigned people to SemiTech to help drive that industry.

SFG:
Wow. That's exciting.

DS:
Yes. It's going be great because right now we're stuck using existing building LEED standards to try to go back and retroactively certify our buildings instead of having one that's specifically designed for these complex buildings.

SFG:
It's such a high energy-use industry.

DS:
Yes, there's no doubt about it. The other half of our carbon footprint is energy and that's what we've been focusing on lately. But because it's so energy intensive, it's gotten a lot of attention in terms of driving it down. There's a lot of opportunity that's been taken advantage of in that energy space.

And the LEED standards cover so much more than just energy. It really is kind of a total sustainability. I mean, it's called a green building standard but it focuses on employees and materials and sourcing and everything else.

So just to touch on the second half, this energy piece. So, the PFC started early. They started to drive those down. Because we report the data quarterly inside the company to our executives, and actually we do it quarterly outside, you could see that the PFC half of the pie was getting smaller and the energy half was getting larger because we were continuing to grow and expand, and we were doing a great job managing our perfluorocarbons. So then we had to start focusing on the energy.

SFG:
When was this? Around what time?

DS:
This was probably 2003. There was always good conservation things going on but it was pretty clear that we needed to do more in energy. That's when we started to take our first public goals in terms of reducing energy use both in a normalized and absolute value. That's when we started to take a look at for the first time specific goals for our sites and specific initiatives outside the company.

We set up a capital funding program just for energy conservation projects that would help us find projects that didn't have the best payback period in terms of some of the other projects we were comparing them to but allowed us to drive some energy conservation efforts.

SFG:
Can you give me some examples?

DS:
Sure. There's a lot of work that's been done in that for the last five or six years. We spent $19 million on energy conservation programs in this special energy conservation capital funding program, and just last year the savings were $15 million. A lot of these things were focused on equipment inside the facility -- air handling units, chillers and things that we could build into the plant system and then copy everywhere else we needed to go.

So a lot of effort's there. As we're watching our data, we can see now a solid normalized reduction trend which means we're using less energy per chip year year after year as we go forward.

SFG:
Is this mostly in new facilities or retrofit facilities, or are you going into existing operations and upgrading the technology so that it's more energy efficient?

DS:
It's a little bit of everything that you mentioned. So where we can really hit it going into the new facilities is clear opportunity. Right? I mean it's built-in. It's lower cost and we can drive it going forward.

But a lot of the things that we've built or we designed (from) these special energy conservation projects have been in one facility that we then can go back and retrofit and then take it forward.

So there's a little bit of both. But we keep tweaking our goals, too. Our standing goal today is to reduce our greenhouse gas emissions per production unit by 30 percent from a 2004 level by the time we get to 2010.

SFG:
Are you on track to achieve that goal?

DS:
Yep, we're on track for that one and we're actually thinking about tightening that up and making it even a little bit more robust and extending the time period out to 2012 so it forces us to take even a longer-term horizon on it.

SFG:
Let's talk about the business case for this. It is a tough sell to go to the leadership of Intel and say, "We need to make all of these changes. We need to invest these billions of dollars?" What's the payoff? What's the selling point?

DS:
There's no doubt that we are scrutinized and we scrutinize these projects on a cost basis. So projects that don't have a strong ROI, and that might sound very good from a reputation standpoint, are a tough sell. If they're great from a reputation standpoint but have a positive ROI, they're much easier to sell.

We're a data-driven company. Everything is built into a system here. If you want to change things -- which a lot of these projects do, they changed the way we do business last year and they're changing how we do business going forward -- there's actually a change control process. You have to describe, "I want to install this piece of equipment. It's gonna cost this much money. The payback period is this period of time."

All the capital costs have to be defined up-front. There's very few things that we have done over the years that have been just because it sounds good or it might look good somewhere.

There are things that we've done at our sites where really working with the community makes a lot of sense for the long-term viability of the company. But these energy conservation projects, the ones we've put in place, have a positive ROI.

SFG:
Was that surprising? Do you think that other companies might not assume that they have a positive ROI?

DS:
This is complex and I don't want to point to any company in particular. But energy, once you get beyond the PFC stuff, when you're talking about energy it sounds like it's a uniform playing field but it really isn't. It's unique to where you're doing business. It's unique to the cost you're paying for your energy today. In Intel's case, we've been doing business for almost 40 years now and in a lot of our locations, we have long-term energy contracts.

So, for example, in Arizona or California or New Mexico where we do business, we may have negotiated a pretty good price for energy for a few years.

Where in the marketplace, some new entrant to that location might put up some solar panels and get a lot of press. Positive, right, because he's doing something in solar? But they would have been paying much more than we were to begin with so the switch to solar is much more of a switch from one source to another.

For us, at our negotiated energy prices, a lot of times we'd love to do things like solar or renewable power in some places but the cost is three or four "X" what we're paying already. That's the kind of thing that doesn't make sense. We'd really love to do it if it did.

SFG:
Again, how do you make the business case for reducing your energy use if you're getting energy for low prices?

DS:
There are smart ways to do it. It doesn't matter if we're paying a penny per kilowatt hour. We focus much more on conservation than on the renewable and offset path.

Even today, I think, if you had a philosophical argument, (with) conservation, you can see where that makes a real impact and it's not trading some impact across industries or into different geographies.

So we've focused on conservation for years. We're actually looking at some renewable strategies today and different things, but we've always focused on conservation because those are dollars you can count. What I spend today if I conserve 10 percent of my energy cost -- this is my savings.

Even with that, we're still the largest renewable purchaser of power in Oregon and one of the largest in New Mexico because those states have set up ways for us to participate that isn't a loss in cost. We're able to work with them within our own existing cost structures and still contribute to the market in those states.

SFG:
Do you think in being able to make that business case, and showing to the world, especially in these industries that are such energy consumers, that it is cost-effective to go after these conservation efforts and that it's going have a larger impact (than) in (only) selling the "It's just what's good for the environment?"

DS:
I don't think there's any doubt about it. I know there's no doubt in our minds here. I think that one of the things that's hard to tell, and you may have picked up on it at that conference, is there's so much out there now it's hard to tell what's real, what's not.

Is one company's announcement better than another company's announcement because they both sound great. You know, if two companies are carbon-neutral, which one is the better carbon-neutral company?

Focusing on conservation and driving the business case I think is really important. I know when I have interviews with Forbes or Fortune or the Wall Street Journal, they're always asking, "So what's in it from the financial aspect? Why do businesses do this?"

They know that more businesses do it today because it makes sense from a reputation standpoint. It's good for your perception. But they still know businesses just can't do everything they want to look good. They have to be focused on this business case, this financial analysis. That's what they're trying to get at.

Also, when we go to different countries or to different states to locate, we're still the kind of industry where those locations compete for us. They know Intel has a good name. They know that we work a lot in our communities and our employees are positive impacts to where they work so we're often courted in different places.

But you have to manage those relationships in a positive way if you want to remain a favorable neighbor. So there's a lot to it than just the cost impact. You want the community and you want the local governments and the economic infrastructure to value your input. But still when it comes down to it, the company has to decide these things on a cost-basis.

I think what we've tried to do is really shift. Our biggest impact I think is shifting from this "right now" cost. Am I saving money today or am I willing to put some capital investment in place today that will save me money in the future?

That's the thing that this conservation fund was set up to do is to push out that payback timeframe. We don't do things that are losers in terms of money. We're not going to do something that is clear on paper that it's a clear loser in terms of our profits and that it will hit our profits and we can't pay it back.

But what we will struggle with is deciding between a project that has a six-month payback period or a three-year payback period.

SFG:
How do you make that business case to Intel leadership?

DS:
It's tough. It's a challenge. I think a lot of what goes on today is really describing to them the impact. The energy conservation fund is one thing. That was actually set up to push that window back from six months to something longer.

But if you want to do something beyond that, it really does take getting the senior leaders of the company together in a room or on the phone and talking about the value -- just beyond the dollars -- of some of these efforts that we're doing.

A lot of the efforts in the citizenship space or the CSR space require minds that come together from a sales and marketing aspect, an operational aspect, an employee workforce aspect, and a technology aspect. They almost all have to come together. One person may say, "Alright. For me, this is really valuable."

Another person may say, "You know it's going to cost me a little bit more but I see the value you're going to see in three years out."

You have to bridge the gaps that most companies have in place already today. These decisions require input beyond the normal business group silos. And that's why they're so challenging.

SFG:
Let's go back to more of the hands-on efforts and results. It's great to say, "Let's reduce our energy use by 30 percent." But how do you do it? How do you identify those areas in your business model that are the most energy consuming and then just go in and fix them?

DS:
Well, for us it might be a little bit easier than other companies because we're so data-driven. We measure everything. We have 90,000 people around the world, 50,000 still close to working in the manufacturing and the engineering aspects of the company.

We're measuring the energy in and out of all the pumps and all the systems. The factories are on 24 hours a day. There's a lot of automation. There's a lot of data there to work from and we have pretty good pareto of where the energy uses are in our factories.

So we might say, "Oh, the air handling units take up 40 percent of our total energy bill, or lighting is 10 percent, or heating and cooling is something else." We have all that data at our fingertips and we know what it is 24 hours a day. We know what it is per building, per factory.

SFG:
So how do you change it?

DS:
Well, it gives us exactly what to go focus on so then our engineers can go take a look at ways to optimize that pareto. Which ones has the largest piece of the pie? Then our engineers go and actually take a look at ways to work on it. And we will take a look at the - pick one, for example - the conditioning of the air in our factories.

That's huge, right? I mean all these clean rooms are super-clean. They have laminar air flow. It's a big focus effort. It takes a lot of energy to maintain those environments.

So (we're) getting our engineers together with all the equipment that touches that air and all the suppliers, whether it's the conditioners, the humidifiers, the air flows, the heaters, the chillers. It's getting those people together and trying to find ways to pull energy out of the equation. And that's exactly what they do. They work and they actually compete.

Even inside our company we have one site that wants to be more energy efficient than another site. Our Ireland site has won some great energy sustainability awards in Ireland the last couple years for chillers in air conditioning impacts. And they take that and they copy it across the rest of the company.

SFG:
So one last question, what advice do you have for other companies within your industry or in other industries on how to be successful?

DS:
You can see this kind of playing out almost daily in our industry. People are actually sharing information. They're sharing benchmarks.

First, you have to be able to measure your footprint. You've got to know what it is. You've got to know what it is from the operations, from the products, and the best you can get it in terms of your total climate impact on the planet.

That might involve things that are harder to get, such as your employees or your logistics, but if you focus on your operations and your products first, get that down, then you can take a look at it. You can (then) do those prioritization methods that I described, such as taking a look at the biggest piece of the pie and focusing on it.

But once you get that part, the next level really is taking a look inside your sector. Companies are competitive. The people that run companies are competitive and people like me can use that competitive nature to drive performance in the company. So if I can share within my company something that one of our competitors is doing better than us, it'll drive a lot more improvement in here. Really getting that information out and sharing it. The high-tech sector is good in terms of sharing information.

I can go take a look at Sun and I can take a look at IBM and HP and Dell and TI and AMD and see what they're doing in terms of energy conservation. How are they managing it? Where they're making their big strides? Even what they're announcing and how they're advertising. And they can do the same thing for Intel.

SFG:
So you're using your competitor's efforts and successes to spur competition within your own organization.

DS:
Exactly. That's the exact same thing that's happened in the petrochemical industry. It's the exact same thing that's happening in the automotive industry. So (the) first thing, in industries that are coming to this, you first have to get your footprint and then start sharing it.

That's what will really drive improvement, competitive improvement. There's going to be legislative drivers. There's going to be regulatory drivers around the world. There's going to be cap-and-trade systems put in place like there are already in other places in the world, so there's going to be that environment.

But between the consumer driver, the competitive advantage in the marketplace and the competitive nature among companies, that's where all these announcements are coming from. Companies aren't announcing them just because. They're announcing (them) because one of their competitors announced something similar and they want to beat them or do better than they do. Or they want to differentiate themselves in the marketplace.

Those are the things that drive companies. Regulations can change the way companies behave but they don't drive companies to be better.

SFG:
You say the first step is measuring your carbon footprint. What is the best place to start, if you're a company that has no idea?

DS:
There are consultants that do this, and without naming them, you could find them. You could just search for carbon footprint or carbon accounting.

But the best thing, the simplest to do, is really get together with your local utility. That's the easiest thing to do. Basically take your meter, take it from beginning to end or get it on one day and measure it at the end of the day, or by month, and then they can help you then with their mix. They can give you the calculations in term of what your carbon footprint is as a company or as a business. Even as a service provider, you're gonna have a carbon footprint.

And they can help you determine what that is and then you can start to work on it. Start with your operations, and then take a look at what you provide in terms of the materials you buy, the services or the products you sell. Start with your operational footprint then move onto your products.

There are a lot of consultants out there that make a business in this now but I think, even small business can do something. They can just sit down, take their bill, have a phone call with their electrical utility and determine their carbon footprint and start working on it.

Sarah Fister Gale is a contributing writer for Greener World Media. This article originally appeared as a podcast on
GreenBiz Radio.



Press Release 25.10.2007 Covalence Ethical Ranking 3rd Quarter 2007: IBM score high on progress and reported performance


Thanks to Liz for forwarding this on
English: .doc   .pdf   Full results .xls
Français: .doc   .pdf   Résultats complets .xls

Geneva (Switzerland), 25 October 2007               Press Release

Covalence Ethical Ranking 3rd Quarter 2007

 
Geneva-based Covalence is publishing today its quarterly ethical reputation ranking, giving the best ranked companies as well as those companies which have made the most progress in the third quarter of 2007. An overview of hot issues across sectors is also given (see below).  
 
The main results across sectors are:
 
> Unilever, Toyota and HSBC top Ethicalquote ranking
 
> Toyota, Coca-Cola and IBM register best progress during Q3 2007
 
> Wal-Mart, Coca-Cola and Toyota show best Reported Performance

 
Twenty multinational companies are analyzed in ten major sectors; the top ten performing companies are ranked in each category: Best EthicalQuote Score (positive minus negative news, cumulated from 1 January 2002 to 30 September 2007), Best Ethical Progress (positive minus negative news, cumulated from 1 July to 30 September 2007) and Best Reported Performance (positive news only, cumulated from 1 July to 30 September 2007).
 
Best EthicalQuote Score and Best EthicalQuote Progress are given by confronting positive and negative news. Best Reported Performance is calculated by quantifying positive news only – it shows how companies report on their ethical performance without considering criticisms and demands. Some companies being highly targeted by activists have a low EthicalQuote Score while at the same time ranking high in terms of Reported Performance. We can assume that "ethical demands" (negative news i.e. stakeholder issues, campaigns, expectations) stimulate "ethical offers" (positive news i.e. initiatives, reporting, communication by companies).
 


Covalence Ethical Ranking 3rd Quarter 2007
 

Leaders across all sectors
Rank
Best EthicalQuote Score
Best EthicalQuote Progress
Best Reported Performance
1
Unilever
Toyota
Wal-Mart
2
Toyota
Coca-Cola Company
Coca-Cola Company
3
HSBC
IBM
Toyota
4
Hewlett-Packard
Wal-Mart
Ford
5
Alcoa
Ford
General Motors
6
Starbucks
HSBC
IBM
7
Intel
Honda
HSBC
8
BP
BMW
McDonald's Corp.
9
Dell
McDonald's Corp.
Tesco PLC
10
Marks & Spencer
Dell
BP

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Automobiles & Parts
Rank
Best EthicalQuote Score
Best EthicalQuote Progress
Best Reported Performance
1
Toyota
Toyota
Toyota
2
Ford
Ford
Ford
3
BMW
Honda
General Motors
4
Honda
BMW
Honda
5
General Motors
General Motors
BMW
6
Daimler
Nissan
Nissan
7
Renault
Volkswagen
Volkswagen
8
Peugeot
Mazda Motor
Daimler
9
Nissan
Daimler
Hyundai Motor
10
Denso
Peugeot
Peugeot


 
Banks
Rank
Best EthicalQuote Score
Best EthicalQuote Progress
Best Reported Performance
1
HSBC
HSBC
HSBC
2
ABN AMRO
Barclays
Barclays
3
Bank of America
Citigroup
Citigroup
4
Citigroup
Wells Fargo
Bank of America
5
Barclays
Credit Suisse
Wells Fargo
6
Wells Fargo
ABN AMRO
Credit Suisse
7
JPMorgan Chase
Bank of America
ABN AMRO
8
UBS
Royal Bank of Canada
Wachovia Corp.
9
Royal Bank of Canada
Wachovia Corp.
Lloyds
10
Credit Suisse
Lloyds
Merrill Lynch

 
 

Chemicals
Rank
Best EthicalQuote Score
Best EthicalQuote Progress
Best Reported Performance
1
BASF
DuPont
DuPont
2
DuPont
Dow Chemicals
Dow Chemicals
3
Air Products
Bayer
Bayer
4
Akzo Nobel
Air Products
BASF
5
Sumitomo Chemical
BASF
Air Products
6
L'Air Liquide
Akzo Nobel
Akzo Nobel
7
Asahi Kasei
L'Air Liquide
PPG Industries
8
Potash Corp.
Asahi Kasei
Mitsui Chemicals
9
Shin-Etsu Chemical
Mitsui Chemicals
Monsanto
10
PPG Industries
Potash Corp.
L'Air Liquide

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Entertainment & leisure
Rank
Best EthicalQuote Score
Best EthicalQuote Progress
Best Reported Performance
1
Philips Electronics
McDonald's Corp.
McDonald's Corp.
2
Sony Corp.
Sony Corp.
Sony Corp.
3
McDonald's Corp.
Philips Electronics
Philips Electronics
4
Sharp Corp.
Fuji Photo Film
Fuji Photo Film
5
LG Electronics Inc.
LG Electronics Inc.
LG Electronics Inc.
6
Matsushita Electric
Sharp Corp.
Sharp Corp.
7
Eastman Kodak Co.
Nintendo Co. Ltd.
Nintendo Co. Ltd.
8
Fuji Photo Film Co. Ltd.
Eastman Kodak Co.
Eastman Kodak Co.
9
Sanyo Electric Co. Ltd.
Sanyo Electric
Sanyo Electric
10
Pioneer Corp.
Pioneer Corp.
Pioneer Corp.

 
 

Food & Beverage
Rank
Best EthicalQuote Score
Best EthicalQuote Progress
Best Reported Performance
1
Unilever
Coca-Cola Company
Coca-Cola Company
2
Starbucks
PepsiCo
PepsiCo
3
Diageo
Nestlé
Nestlé
4
Danone
SABMiller
Starbucks
5
SABMiller
Unilever
Unilever
6
Kellogg
Starbucks
SABMiller
7
Heineken
Kellogg
Kellogg
8
Kraft Foods
Kraft Foods
Kraft Foods
9
Cadbury
Heinz
Cadbury
10
Heinz
Hershey Foods
Danone

 
 

Mining & Metals
Rank
Best EthicalQuote Score
Best EthicalQuote Progress
Best Reported Performance
1
Alcoa
Alcan
Alcan
2
Alcan
Alcoa
Anglo American
3
Anglo American
Anglo American
Rio Tinto
4
Rio Tinto
Impala Platinum
Alcoa
5
BHP Billiton
Rio Tinto
Xstrata
6
Gold Fields
BHP Billiton
Barrick Gold
7
POSCO
Harmony Gold
BHP Billiton
8
Xstrata
CVRD
POSCO
9
Impala Platinum
Barrick Gold
Impala Platinum
10
Nippon Steel
Gold Fields
Newmont

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 

Oil & Gas
Rank
Best EthicalQuote Score
Best EthicalQuote Progress
Best Reported Performance
1
BP
Petrobras
BP
2
StatoilHydro
Suncor Energy
Chevron
3
Suncor Energy
StatoilHydro
ExxonMobil
4
Petro-Canada
Petro-Canada
Petrobras
5
Imperial Oil
Schlumberger
Shell
6
Anadarko Petroleum
Chevron
StatoilHydro
7
Petrobras
Anadarko Petroleum
ENI
8
Schlumberger
CNOOC
Suncor Energy
9
CNOOC
Imperial Oil
Total
10
Baker Hughes
Baker Hughes
Petro-Canada

 

Pharmaceutical & Biotech
Rank
Best EthicalQuote Score
Best EthicalQuote Progress
Best Reported Performance
1
GlaxoSmithKline
GlaxoSmithKline
GlaxoSmithKline
2
Bristol Myers Squibb
Abbott
Abbott
3
Johnson & Johnson
Boehringer Ingelheim
Novartis
4
Abbott
Bristol Myers Squibb
Merck & Co Inc
5
Roche
Eli Lilly
Eli Lilly
6
Novartis
Takeda
Pfizer
7
Astra Zeneca
Astra Zeneca
Roche
8
Boehringer Ingelheim
Wyeth
Bristol Myers Squibb
9
Pfizer
Johnson & Johnson
Astra Zeneca
10
Sanofi aventis
Roche
Boehringer Ingelheim

 

Retailers
Rank
Best EthicalQuote Score
Best EthicalQuote Progress
Best Reported Performance
1
Marks & Spencer
Wal-Mart
Wal-Mart
2
Home Depot
Marks & Spencer
Tesco PLC
3
Gap Inc
Tesco PLC
Home Depot
4
Tesco PLC
McKesson Corp.
Marks & Spencer
5
Carrefour
Gap Inc
Gap Inc
6
H&M
Kohl's
Best Buy Co. Inc.
7
Lowe's
Inditex S.A.
McKesson Corp.
8
Best Buy Co. Inc.
Home Depot
Carrefour
9
Kingfisher
Costco Wholesale
Walgreen
10
Inditex S.A.
Target Corp.
Kohl's

 

Technology Hardware
Rank
Best EthicalQuote Score
Best EthicalQuote Progress
Best Reported Performance
1
Hewlett-Packard
IBM
IBM
2
Intel
Dell
Dell
3
Dell
Ericsson
Intel
4
IBM
Intel
Hewlett-Packard
5
Nokia
Hewlett-Packard
Ericsson
6
Cisco Systems
Xerox
Siemens
7
Sun Microsystems
Cisco Systems
Xerox
8
Xerox
Fujitsu Ltd.
Cisco Systems
9
Ericsson
Sun Microsystems
Fujitsu Ltd.
10
Motorola
Apple Computer Inc
Apple Computer Inc

 

Complete results
The complete results of Covalence Ethical Ranking 3rd Quarter 2007 are available on Excel sheets.
 
> View and download complete results.

 
Hot issues registered during 3rd Quarter 2007
The charts below show criteria (left) having gained importance during 3rd quarter 2007, both within negative and positive news. Examples of hot issues are given (right boxes).



 
About Covalence
Covalence' s ethical quotation system is a reputation index based on quantifying qualitative data, which are classified according to 45 criteria of business contribution to human development such as Labour standards, Waste management, Product social utility or Human rights policy. It is a barometer of how multinationals are perceived in the ethical field.
 
The system integrates thousands of documents found among media, enterprise, NGO and other sources, for producing the EthicalQuote curves.  These curves measure the historical evolution of the reputation of companies regarding ethical issues. They are created through the cumulative addition of positive news (documents coded as "ethical offers", which are weighed as +1, curve ascends) and negative news ("ethical demands" weighed as -1, curve descends). The Reported Performance measure is given by cumulating positive news only.
 
This tool received the Cantonal Sustainable Development Prize (Geneva) in 2004 and prompted Covalence among the finalists of the Social Entrepreneur of the Year 2005 award organised by the Schwab Foundation. Since September 2006, Covalence research is being distributed by Reuters and by Thomosn Financial.
 
Covalence is closely monitoring 10 sectors including 200 companies that are classified as the largest market capitalizations in the Dow Jones World Index. Covalence is a limited company that was founded in Geneva in 2001 by six persons coming from social sciences and finance.
 
Online information: Covalence company and methodology


Company Methodology    
> About Covalence > Methodology
> Team > Sources
> Clients > Criteria
> Academic partners > Universe
> News > Publications
> Products > EthicalQuote public version
> Covalence in the News > History

 
Press contact:
Covalence SA Antoine Mach, Direction & Research
Tel: +41 (0)22 800 08 55; Mob. +41 (0)78 708 58 18 antoine.mach@covalence.ch
 
Sales contact:
Covalence SA Marc Rochat, Marketing & Sales

Tel: +41 (0)22 800 08 55 marc.rochat@covalence.ch
 
Covalence SA 1, avenue Industrielle, CH-1227 Carouge Geneva Switzerland
Tel: +41 (0)22 800 08 55 ; Fax: +41 (0)22 800 08 56
US Rep Office, 20 Riverside Street, Apt. 25, Watertown MA 02472, USA, tel +(1) 617 429 4758
info@covalence.ch ; www.covalence.ch ; www.ethicalquote.com
 
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October HBR Features Climate Business


Thanks to Erwin



Link: http://harvardbusinessonline.hbsp.harvard.edu/hbsp/hbr/articles/article.jsp?OPERATION_TYPE=CHECK_COOKIE&referer=/hbsp/hbr/articles/article.jsp&productId=F0710A&TRUE=TRUE&reason=freeContent&FALSE=FALSE&ml_subscriber=true&ml_action=get-article&ml_issueid=BR0710&articleID=F0710A&pageNumber=1

Guardian - IBM snatches C-charge from Capita: Shares in Capita tumbled more than 7% to 687p today on the surprise news that it has lost the lucrative contract for the London congestion charge zone. Transport for London (TfL) announced that the contract has been awarded to IBM UK following a 12-month competitive tendering procurement process.



___________________________________







Thursday October 25, 2007
12.15pm
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
IBM snatches C-charge from Capita
Fiona Walsh, business editor

Guardian Unlimited

Shares in Capita tumbled more than 7% to 687p today on the surprise news that it has lost the lucrative contract for the London congestion charge zone.

Transport for London (TfL) announced that the contract has been awarded to IBM UK following a 12-month competitive tendering procurement process.

IBM will be responsible for the operation of the Congestion Charging and Low Emission Zone schemes from November 2009, including the technology that will underpin payments and all customer contact channels.

The contract will run for five years with an option to extend a further five years.

Graeme Craig, interim director of Congestion Charging at TfL, said: "IBM's submission to operate the London Congestion Charging scheme has been selected as it best meets TfL's operational and technical requirements.

"It was also the most economically advantageous, which is important as net proceeds from Congestion Charging are invested in transport within London.

"We expect to continue our excellent working relationship with Capita over the next two years."

http://business.guardian.co.uk/story/0,,2198871,00.html






Capita Declines After Losing London Congestion Charge Contract
2007-10-25 07:15 (New York)


By Andrew Rummer
    Oct. 25 (Bloomberg) -- Capita Group Plc fell as much as 11
percent in London trading after it lost the contract to run
London's congestion charge program.
    International Business Machines Corp. will run the U.K.
capital's traffic congestion charge for five years from November
2009, Transport for London said today in a statement on its Web
site. It also awarded the contract to run a low-emissions zone to
IBM.

--Editor: Schumacher.

To contact the reporter on this story:
Andrew Rummer in London +44-20-7073-3722 or
arummer@bloomberg.net

To contact the editor responsible for this story:
David Merritt at +44-20-7673-2693 or
dmerritt1@bloomberg.net

UN issues 'final wake-up call' on population and environment



Thanks to Colin for forwarding on

First Green Computing, now Brown Computing


Thanks to Andy (and Fake Steve Jobs) for the link :-)

From Network World:

This story appeared on Network World at
http://www.networkworld.com/news/2007/102507-olpc-experiments-with-cow-powered-laptops.html

OLPC experiments with cow-powered laptops ... seriously

By Sumner Lemon, IDG News Service, 10/25/07

The One Laptop Per Child Project (OLPC) is toying with a novel source of power for its low-cost XO laptops: cows.

"We plan to drive a dynamo (taken from an old Fiat) through a system of belts and pulleys using cows/cattle," wrote OLPC's Arjun Sarwal, in an e-mail dated Oct. 21 and posted to one of the group's discussion lists.

Sarwal and others are now finalizing the design of the cow-powered generator.

The goal is to develop a low-cost energy source that can be used in Indian villages. Working in a village close to Mumbai, Sarwal said the group considered using solar energy but sunlight near Mumbai was not "consistently strong." There was not enough wind or running water nearby to use these as sources of power, and the cost of running a gas-powered motor was too high.

"But the village had an abundance of cattle that were being used in the fields. So we decided to design something around that," Sarwal wrote in a subsequent e-mail.

The dynamo used in the system was taken from a Fiat car that is commonly used as taxis in Mumbai and therefore both cheap and readily available.

OLPC is close to putting its XO laptop into production, but has been beset by delays and rising costs. Originally intended to cost $100 each, the cost has since risen to nearly $200. And production is also moving slowly.

After a trial production run in August, OLPC had hoped to start mass production in late September or early October. That date has now slipped to Nov. 12, according to a Reuters report that quoted the group's chief technology officer, Mary Lou Jepsen.

The IDG News Service is a Network World affiliate.

All contents copyright 1995-2007 Network World, Inc. http://www.networkworld.com